Historical Review

This task will conduct a broad assessment of participation and engagement (including classic and new, invited, and spontaneous, representative, and direct/deliberative forms of participation and activism), in diverse socio-cultural contexts in Europe, from divergent philosophical viewpoints, and at different scales of participation (from local to global). 


The timespan will cover the last eight decades, from the end of the WWII to today, with special attention to sustainability-related participation and engagement and the development of new technologies. The review will consider diverse socio-political and socio-economic contexts, such as old and new democracies, as well as economic regimes in northern, continental, and peripheral member countries (with examples from at least 8 countries). 


To ensure potential for transnational comparison throughout the project, this task will further analyse evidence-based examples of non-EU countries, which will help mirror our understanding of European participation and engagement. The review will analyse literature on how different democratic innovations have impacted societal and governance values, informing about strategies for integration/exclusion of different segments of society. 

The task will rely on documentary analysis, including analysis of historical datasets, supported by approximately 15 expert interviews with international scholars and practitioners in the field of participation and engagement.